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Birla Fertility & IVF
Birla Fertility & IVF

Understanding Female Infertility: Common Causes, and Treatment

  • Published on October 09, 2023
Understanding Female Infertility: Common Causes, and Treatment

The inability of a woman to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term is referred to as female infertility. It is a common reproductive health issue that millions of women worldwide face. To address this problem, it is essential to comprehend the causes, signs, treatments available, and chances of recovery associated with female infertility. The reasons, signs, potentially effective therapies, and recovery from assisted reproductive procedures are all covered in length in this article.

Some Common Causes of Female Infertility

There are various causes of female Infertility,  which may include physiologic, biochemical, hormonal, genetic, and lifestyle choices. Detecting the underlying causes for an appropriate diagnosis and management of fertility might be difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to get timely advice from an expert. Here are a few common causes of female infertility:

  • Abnormalities in the structure of a female’s reproductive organs, like uterine fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or congenital malformations.
  • Ovulation disorders are among the most prevalent factors that affect women’s fertility and the conception process. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypothalamus dysfunction, early ovarian insufficiency, or hormonal imbalances are some examples of ovulation disorders.
  • Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes are frequently caused by pelvic inflammatory disease or previous surgeries.
  • Endocrine diseases can impair the proper operation of the reproductive organs by causing hyperprolactinemia or thyroid dysfunction.
  • Age-related Factors can also prevent healthy conception, as there is a set number of viable eggs that can be fertilised. The number continues to decline as they age because of ovarian reserve.
  • Many autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune oophoritis and the Antiphospholipid Syndrome, might interfere with implantation or otherwise negatively affect fertility.

Symptoms of Female Infertility

It may be difficult to understand the signs and symptoms of female infertility. Also, the severity of symptoms may differ from one patient to another. Here is a list of a few symptoms that indicate female infertility:

  • Irregular periods
  • Painful menstruation
  • Heavy bleeding
  • Abnormal facial hair growth
  • Ageing
  • Frequent miscarriage
  • Unsuccessful pregnancies

Female Infertility Treatment Options

Many couples may experience infertility, which affects both men and women, and it may be a sensitive situation. We’ll concentrate on the numerous treatments for female infertility in this blog. It’s critical to realise that different infertility treatments may be appropriate for different women based on the underlying issues. In order to choose the appropriate course of action, consultation with a fertility expert is extremely important. The following are some treatment options for female infertility:

  • Ovulation Induction

Female infertility is frequently caused by ovulation abnormalities. To promote ovulation, doctors frequently prescribe drugs like letrozole and clomiphene citrate (Clomid). These medications boost conception chances by regulating the menstrual cycle.

  • Lifestyle Modifications

Prior to beginning medical therapies, lifestyle modifications can have a major impact on fertility. It’s crucial to maintain a healthy body weight with nutrition and exercise. Fertility can also be enhanced by reducing stress through relaxation practices like yoga or meditation. Avoiding smoking and drinking too much alcohol is advised since they can harm fertility.

  • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) may be advised when poor sperm quality or cervical mucus prevents fertilisation. During the woman’s reproductive window, sperm is prepared and then put straight into the uterus during this operation. IUI increases the likelihood that sperm will find the egg.

  • In vitro fertilisation (IVF)

One of the most well-known infertility therapies is in vitro fertilisation (IVF). When there are problems with the fallopian tubes, endometriosis, or unexplained infertility, it is advised. IVF involves taking eggs out of the ovaries, fertilising them with sperm in a lab, and then transferring the resulting embryos into the uterus. Since IVF’s success rates have increased over time, more couples now consider it a viable alternative.

  • Donor sperm

Utilising donor sperm may be an option when the quality of the woman’s egg is compromised. For couples dealing with certain fertility issues, this is a workable alternative.

  • Surgery

Infertility can occasionally be caused by structural problems with the reproductive organs. These issues can be resolved and fertility can be increased through surgical procedures such as laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, or myomectomy (removing uterine fibroids).

  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT), frozen embryo transfer (FET), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are a few examples of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The likelihood of a successful pregnancy can be increased by combining these methods with IVF.

  • Surrogacy to achieve pregnancy

Gestational surrogacy is an option for women who, for medical reasons, are unable to carry a pregnancy to term. In this procedure, an embryo made from the genetic material of the intended parents is carried by a different woman (the surrogate).


Female infertility can be caused by various underlying reasons, and treatment solutions for female infertility should be customised to meet the unique requirements of each patient. The best course of treatment must be determined by consulting a fertility expert. Even though infertility can be emotionally taxing, advances in assisted reproduction technology give many patients pursuing motherhood hope and solutions. Keep in mind that during this journey, the support of family members and infertility support groups can be unmatched. If you are diagnosed with any common cause of female infertility and are facing issues with conception, consult our fertility specialist today. You can either call us at the given number or book an appointment by filling in the required details in the form attached to this page.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • What are the common causes of female infertility other than structural abnormalities?

Apart from structural abnormalities, the following can be various reasons for female infertility:

  • Chronic illness impacts healthy conception
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Low ovarian reserve (ageing)
  • Unhealthy lifestyle
  • What diagnostic tests are recommended to detect the causes of female infertility?

Here is a list of a few diagnostic tests that are commonly recommended for female infertility:

  • Laparoscopy
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Progesterone hormone test
  • HSG test
  • Why are assisted reproduction treatments advised for female infertility?

If a woman is facing infertility issues and is not able to achieve motherhood, an expert may advise fertility treatment in order to conceive a baby. Assisted reproduction treatments are typically recommended when a woman is affected by any of the following causes of female infertility:

  • Is IVF the only option for female infertility?

Not really, the treatment is typically determined after diagnosing the severity of female infertility. At times, doctors advise lifestyle modification along with some medications that include fertility drugs as first-line treatment to boost the chances of conception. On the other hand, some patients may need surgical intervention as part of fertility treatment to achieve pregnancy.

  • Are there any different types of female infertility?

Yes. Infertility is categorized into three different types based on their characteristics:

  • Primary infertility
  • Secondary infertility
  • Unexplained infertility
  • Is female infertility a common issue?

Female infertility is a common issue nowadays; according to some studies, it is reported that 1 out of 5 women is typically affected with one or another fertility disorder.

  • Is irregularity in periods a sign of infertility in women?

There are various reasons for female infertility, and irregular periods can be one of them. However, irregularity in the menstruation cycle does not always indicate infertility, at times, it can be a result of excessive stress, an unhealthy lifestyle, or little to no physical activity. It is always a better idea to get connected with a fertility expert or gynaecologist if you are facing issues with irregular periods.

Written by:
Dr. Madhulika Singh

Dr. Madhulika Singh

Dr. Madhulika Singh, with more than 10 years of experience, is an IVF specialist. She is well-versed in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) techniques, ensuring the safety and success rate of treatments.Along with this, she is an expert in managing high-risk cases.
Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

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