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Birla Fertility & IVF
Birla Fertility & IVF

Female Infertility: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Recovery

  • Published on July 31, 2023
Female Infertility: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Recovery

Female infertility is referred to as a woman’s inability to conceive a baby or carry a full-term pregnancy. It is a typical reproductive health concern affecting millions of women globally. Understanding the reasons, symptoms, therapies available, and prospects for recovery connected with female infertility is critical to tackling this issue. This article provides a detailed summary of female infertility, including causes, symptoms, potential effective treatments, and recovery after assisted reproduction treatments.  

Causes of Female Infertility: 

In women, infertility can be caused by various factors, such as physiological, biological, hormonal, genetic, and lifestyle. It can be challenging to identify and detect the underlying reasons for accurately diagnosing and managing the disorder. Among the most significant and common causes are:

Structural Abnormalities: Conception or implantation can be hindered by abnormalities in the structure of the reproductive organs of a female, such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or congenital deformities.

Ovulation Disorders: This is one of the most common causes that impact women’s fertility and the process of conception. Some ovulation disorders can result in irregular periods or absent ovulation, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypothalamus dysfunction, early ovarian insufficiency, or hormonal imbalances.

Fallopian Tube Issues: Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes are generally the result of pelvic inflammatory disease or previous surgeries and can impact the fertilization process by preventing the egg from reaching the uterine lining for implantation or the sperm from reaching the egg.

Endocrine Disorders: Thyroid dysfunction or hyperprolactinemia are a result of Endocrine system disorders and can hamper the normal function of reproductive organs. In addition, it can also impact the process of a healthy conception. 

Age-related Factors: There is a reserved amount of eggs that are viable and can be fertilized leading to a healthy pregnancy. Research suggests that women’s fertility keeps dropping as they age due to a decrease in the amount and quality of their eggs present in the ovarian reserve.

Autoimmune Disorders: Such disorders start harming the healthy tissues in the body causing hindrances in the quality of life.  Antiphospholipid Syndrome and autoimmune oophoritis, are common examples of autoimmune disorders, that might have a negative influence on fertility by interfering with implantation or causing ovarian dysfunction. 

Genetic Disorders: Turner syndrome or Fragile X syndrome are certain genetic issues, that might lead to infertility problems or decrease the normal function of overall fertility, restricting women’s ability to conceive through natural pregnancy.

Lifestyle Factors: It can affect fertility health significantly. Unhealthy lifestyle factors such as smoking, heavy consumption of alcohol, drug abuse, use of tobacco, irregular body weight, obesity, excessive intake of junk food, poor diet, stress, and constant strenuous exercise can all have an adverse effect on fertility.

Symptoms of Female Infertility

Female infertility may not exhibit visible symptoms, making identification difficult without adequate evaluation. However, the following are some potential signs and symptoms of female infertility:

  • Menstrual cycles that are irregular or nonexistent.
  • Painful or heavy menstruation may suggest endometriosis.
  • Pelvic discomfort or agony, particularly during intercourse.
  • Hormonal imbalances can cause excessive facial or body hair growth as well as acne.
  • Miscarriages or unsuccessful pregnancies on a regular basis.
  • Factors associated with ageing, such as difficulty conceiving after the age of 35.
  • The medical history points to illnesses known to cause infertility.

Treatment Options for Female Infertility 

Experts diagnose the condition thoroughly to detect the root cause of infertility. Based on that, along with various first-line methods and medical interventions, female infertility can often be treated successfully. Typically, the type of treatment and technique is determined by the doctor depending on the underlying cause, the severity of the fertility disorder, and individual circumstances. The following are some common treatment options that are suggested to treat female infertility:

Ovulation Induction: To increase healthy egg production, fertility drugs or medications are advised, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole, which can boost the production of eggs and help stimulate ovulation in women with ovulatory disorders.

Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART): Over the years, advancements in ART methods such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and intrauterine insemination (IUI) have helped patients with infertility problems reach successful outcomes, also it aid in achieving the desired results of conception, and can also resolve various fertility issues.

Surgery: Surgical intervention can be an extreme treatment often recommended to patients with structural defects, uterine fibroids or polyps, damaged fallopian tubes, and endometriosis. These fertility disorders are usually treated by minimally invasive surgeries 

Hormonal Therapy: This is generally advised for women with hormonal imbalances. At times, hormonal imbalances like irregular levels of estrogen and progesterone require hormonal injections, and medication is recommended to control and regulate them. Also, it helps regulate the menstrual cycles and prepares the uterine lining for pregnancy.

Lifestyle Modifications: In some cases, minor fertility disorders can be treated with lifestyle modifications alone. The expert might give you a set of guidelines to follow for overall fertility health. follow in order to adopt a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, weight management training exercises, quitting smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, stress reduction, and sleeping for at least eight hours, which can positively impact fertility.

Psychological Support: Due to infertility, some couples can experience emotional distress. To combat or manage that, seeking counseling or support groups can provide emotional support and coping mechanisms.

 

Recovery and Outlook

The recovery and outlook for female infertility vary depending on the underlying causes, severity, and individual circumstances. While some cases may have a complete recovery and successful pregnancy, others may require ongoing management. Factors that influence recovery include:

Female infertility rehabilitation and outlook differ based on the underlying causes, severity, and individual circumstances. While some cases may result in a complete recovery and a successful pregnancy, others may necessitate continued care. Among the factors influencing recovery are:

Treatment Success Rate: The success rates of various treatments depend on factors such as the specific intervention, age, overall health, and the cause of infertility. The dramatic advancements in assisted reproductive techniques have significantly improved the chances of successful conception for infertile women.

Age and Fertility Preservation: Age plays a critical role in female fertility, and the chances of successful conception decline with advancing age. In some cases, fertility preservation techniques, such as egg freezing, may be considered to enhance future reproductive options.

Emotional Support: To combat infertility can be emotionally challenging for females who are struggling with it. Therefore, seeking support from loved ones, counseling, or support groups can positively impact mental well-being and overall recovery.

Alternative Paths to Parenthood: Adoption, surrogacy, or using donor eggs or embryos are alternative options for individuals or couples unable to conceive naturally.

Continued Monitoring: Regular follow-up with your fertility specialist is essential to monitor progress, evaluate treatment effectiveness, and provide guidance for managing infertility.

Conclusion

Female infertility is a complex issue that affects millions of women across the globe. It is important to understand the causes, symptoms, potential treatments, and chances of recovery. Remember, this is essential for coping with this reproductive health disorder. Early medical assessment, diagnosis, effective treatment options, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and seeking emotional support from family and friends can all significantly increase the chances of a successful conception or a healthy pregnancy. With advancements and developments in medical technology and a number of treatment options available, many infertile women may find hope and the possibility of having a child. Birla Fertility & IVF comprises highly experienced fertility specialists. If you have been diagnosed with fertility disorders and are looking for expert advice on planning a pregnancy, consult our fertility expert today. You can book a free appointment by calling us or by filling in the required details in the given appointment form. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • Can female infertility be cured only through medication?

Certain medications and fertility drugs are recommended to treat infertility disorders, such as issues with ovulation. However, the type of fertility treatment, whether it requires first-line treatment or surgical intervention, is determined based on the root cause diagnosed by the expert. 

  • What are the common surgeries for female infertility? 

There are several disorders that can lead to infertility in women like ovulation disorders, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, uterine abnormalities, etc. The type of surgery recommended by the expert after running a thorough diagnosis. The common surgeries for female infertility are:

  • Hysteroscopy
  • Myomectomy
  • Laparoscopy

  • How does age affect female fertility?

Age is a significant factor that affects female infertility and also decreases the chances of a healthy pregnancy. It happens because the ovarian reserve starts declining, leading to difficulty and complications in getting pregnant. 

  • How can I treat female infertility with diet?

There is a lower chance of treating infertility in females with diet alone. However, you can maintain the symptoms of some ovulation disorders by following a healthy diet enriched with all the possible required nutrients and vitamins. Also, it is advisable to consult a fertility expert and a dietitian to get expert advise on the same. 

Written by:
Dr Shreya Gupta

Dr Shreya Gupta

Dr Shreya Gupta is an experienced OBGYN in Lucknow with close to 10 years of clinical experience. Her friendly patient oriented approach and thorough knowledge in reproductive medicine makes her a stellar addition in our growing fertility team. She completed her MBBS from GSVM Medical College, Kanpur and her MD (Obstetrics & Gynaecology) from KGMC Lucknow. Thereafter she completed her DNB (Obstetrics & Gynaecology) and FNB (Reproductive Medicine) from Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune.   

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