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Birla Fertility & IVF
Birla Fertility & IVF

Infertility Treatment for Male: Everything You Need to know

  • Published on September 29, 2023
Infertility Treatment for Male: Everything You Need to know

Although it is primarily a female problem, infertility affects both men and women equally. It’s important to take into account the probable involvement of both partners in a couple’s infertility issues. We will explore male infertility in this extensive overview, including its origins, methods of diagnosis, and potential treatments.

Understanding Male Infertility

Male infertility is the inability of a man to become pregnant while engaging in frequent, unprotected sexual activity with a fertile female partner for an extended period of time, often one year. It may be caused by a number of things, such as:

  1. Low Sperm Count: Oligospermia, or a low sperm count, lowers the likelihood of fertilisation. Azoospermia is the medical term for a complete lack of sperm.
  2. Sperm motility: In order to successfully reach and fertilize the egg, sperm must be able to swim. Ineffective sperm motility can obstruct this procedure.
  3. Ejaculatory Disorders: Disorders that impair ejaculation, like retrograde ejaculation and premature ejaculation, might make men infertile.
  4. Blockages: When sperm cannot reach the semen due to obstructions in the reproductive system, sterility results.

Diagnosis Before Treatment of Male Infertility

A thorough evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying causes of male infertility before beginning any treatment. Some diagnostic techniques include:

  • Semen Analysis: A sample of semen is examined to determine the quantity, morphology, and motility of the sperm.
  • Hormone Testing: Blood tests can measure hormone levels, including those of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which are essential for the creation of sperm.
  • Scrotal Ultrasound: An ultrasound of the scrotum can identify blockages or anatomical irregularities in the reproductive canal.
  • Genetic Testing: Through genetic testing, inherited diseases that impair fertility can be found.
  • Testicular Biopsy: A biopsy of the testicles may be done in azoospermia instances to look for probable problems with sperm production.

Treatments of Male Infertility

Depending on the precise cause, treatment for male infertility may involve:

  • Changes in Lifestyle: A healthy lifestyle can enhance sperm quality. This includes keeping up a balanced diet, getting regular exercise, and abstaining from tobacco and excessive alcohol use.
  • Medication: Treatments for infections or underlying problems, such as hormone replacement treatment, can improve fertility.
  • Surgery: Surgery can correct structural problems, clear obstructions, or harvest sperm for assisted reproductive technologies.
  • Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART): Male infertility concerns may be resolved with assisted reproductive techniques (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilisation (IVF).
  • Sperm Retrieval: For usage in IVF or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), sperm can be directly extracted from the testicles or epididymis in cases of severe male infertility.
  • Support and counselling: Coping with infertility can be emotionally taxing. Counselling and support groups may be helpful to couples.

Risk Factors

There are many potential risk factors and underlying causes for male infertility. Knowing these risk factors is essential for spotting possible problems and getting the right medical care when it’s required. The following are some typical risk factors for male infertility:

  • Age: As people get older, their sperm quality and quantity may decrease. Men can have children later in life, but as they age, their fertility may decline.
  • Smoking: Studies have shown that smoking reduces sperm quality, motility, and quantity. It may also make sperm more likely to have genetic flaws.
  • Alcohol: Drinking too much alcohol might affect the quantity and quality of sperm. Fertility may be increased by cutting back on or quitting alcohol.
  • Drug Use: The use of some recreational drugs, such as cocaine, marijuana, or anabolic steroids, can have a detrimental effect on sperm motility and production.
  • Obesity: Having a large waistline or being obese can cause hormonal imbalances, such as high oestrogen levels, which can impact sperm function and production.
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): If untreated, some STIs, such as chlamydia or gonorrhoea, can create blockages or scarring in the reproductive tract, which can result in infertility.
  • Varicocele: A varicocele is an enlargement of the scrotal veins. It may raise the scrotal temperature, altering the quantity and quality of sperm.
  • Medical Conditions: Many ailments, including diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid issues, can influence fertility by altering hormone levels or resulting in erectile dysfunction.
  • Stress: Long-term stress can cause hormonal abnormalities that may have an impact on sperm count and sexual performance.
  • Genetic Factors: Male infertility may result from certain genetic defects. In rare circumstances, genetic testing might be advised.
  • Side Effects of Prescribed Medicines: Some drugs, such as those for high blood pressure, depression, or disorders of the prostate, may prevent conception.
  • Testicular Trauma: Testicular trauma can result in scarring or other damage that impairs the generation of sperm.
  • Unprotected Heat Exposure: Regular or lengthy exposure to hot environments, including those found in hot tubs or saunas, might momentarily lower sperm production.
  • Treatments for Cancer: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer can harm sperm production, resulting in either temporary or permanent infertility.
  • Occupational Exposures: Some professions expose workers to radiation, poisons, and chemicals that might impair sperm production. Examples include being exposed to radiation, heavy metals, or pesticides.

The fact that male infertility is frequently a complicated problem and that some risk factors may overlap is significant.

Importance of Treatments of Male Infertility

Male infertility is a treatable issue, and many couples who receive the proper treatments become pregnant. However, if you believe you could be infertile, you must act quickly to seek assistance. The likelihood of having a successful pregnancy can be considerably increased by early diagnosis and adequate treatment.


In conclusion, male infertility is a widespread problem that many couples experience globally. Understanding its origins, going through diagnostic procedures, and investigating your options for treatment of male infertility will help you realise your dream of having children. Consult a fertility expert if you or your partner are experiencing fertility issues to get started on the road to a healthy pregnancy. Keep in mind that help is accessible and that you are not alone. You can call the mentioned number to speak to our medical coordinator or book an appointment with us by filling out a given form with the required information. Our coordinator will call you back and provide you with all the necessary details.

Written by:
Dr. Rohani Nayak

Dr. Rohani Nayak

Dr. Rohani Nayak, an Infertility Specialist with more than 5 years of clinical experience. With expertise in Female Infertility and Hysteroscopy, she is also a member of prestigious medical organizations, including FOGSI, AGOI, ISAR, and IMA.
Bhubaneswar, Odisha

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