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Birla Fertility & IVF
Birla Fertility & IVF

What is Molar Pregnancy, and its Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

  • Published on November 17, 2023
What is Molar Pregnancy, and its Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Despite being uncommon, molar pregnancy is a serious medical problem that has to be understood and recognised. We will examine the various aspects of molar pregnancies in this guide, including their types, symptoms, causes, and viable treatments. In addition, we’ll talk about proactive steps that might be taken, providing a thorough understanding of this intricate subject. We’ll also look into the production of infographics, which offer a visual representation of the content being delivered in order to facilitate better understanding.

What Does Pregnancy Molar Mean?

An anomaly known as a molar pregnancy arises when the tissue that would normally form the placenta instead becomes a mass of cysts during pregnancy. Recognising its two main categories is necessary to comprehend its nuances:

  • Complete Molar Pregnancy: This kind of pregnancy does not include a typical foetus. The aberrant cells make up the entire mass.
  • Partial Molar Pregnancy: This variation includes a foetus that is typically not viable as well as aberrant cells.

Symptoms of Molar Pregnancy:

Recognising the symptoms of molar pregnancy is essential for timely medical attention:

  • Vaginal Bleeding: A common sign is bleeding that is not apparent.
  • Severe Morning Sickness and Vomiting (Hyperemesis Gravidarum): This condition is characterised by excessive morning sickness, which is frequently worse than ordinary pregnancy-related nausea.
  • Enlarged Uterus: Depending on the gestational age, the uterus may develop more quickly than anticipated.
  • Preeclampsia, or High Blood Pressure: Pregnant mothers may be more likely to experience preeclampsia, which is characterised by organ damage and elevated blood pressure.
  • Molar Pregnancy Discharge: It is said that if the vaginal discharge is dark in colour it is commonly referred to as molar pregnancy discharge.

Molar Pregnancy Causes

Comprehending the elements that lead to molar pregnancies facilitates risk evaluation. The following are factors that are considered for molar pregnancy causes:

  • Genetic Abnormalities: Aberrant tissues can arise as a result of chromosomal mistakes made during fertilisation.
  • Maternal Age: There is an increased risk for women over 35.
  • Prior Molar Pregnancy: There is a higher chance of recurrence if you have previously gone through a molar pregnancy.
  • Dietary factors: Not getting enough of some nutrients may be a factor.

Diagnosis for Molar Pregnancy:

Getting a diagnosis as soon as possible and getting it right is essential to good treatment:

  • Ultrasound and Other Diagnostic Tests: One popular diagnostic method is to use ultrasound to visualise the abnormal tissue mass.
  • Physical Examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to check the tenderness or rule out any abnormalities by putting slight pressure around the belly region.
  • Removal Procedures: To remove the molar tissue, surgery can be required.
  • Observation Care and Monitoring: To identify and address any possible issues, routine monitoring is necessary.

Molar Pregnancy Treatment Options

The doctor determines the suitable type of molar pregnancy treatment after a thorough assessment of the condition. The following are multiple options that can be considered as molar pregnancy treatment and recommended to patients based on the degree of severity:

  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C): This widely used and successful procedure entails dilating the cervix and extracting the abnormal tissue from the uterus by scraping or suctioning it out. This process is frequently applied to full and partial pregnancies of the molars.
  • Hysterectomy: Removing the uterus (a hysterectomy) may be advised if the molar pregnancy is severe or progressed. Although it is a more forceful strategy, there are circumstances in which it might be required.
  • Observation and Aftercare: It is essential to closely monitor molar tissue removal patients with blood tests to assess hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) levels. Following treatment, elevated hCG levels may signify the formation of a persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or, in rare instances, permanent molar tissue.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be suggested if hCG levels do not return to normal following initial treatment or if GTN is chronic. Chemotherapy medications are useful in the treatment of gestational trophoblastic disorders because they aid in the removal of aberrant cells.
  • Counselling and Emotional Support: Coping with a molar pregnancy can be emotionally taxing. Counselling programmes, support groups, and mental health specialists can all be very helpful in assisting people in managing the emotional effects.
  • Pregnancy Avoidance for a Period: After treatment, medical experts frequently recommend avoiding pregnancy for a predetermined amount of time. This gives the body time to heal, and careful observation is usually maintained during this period.
  • Genetic counselling: It may be advised in the event of a molar pregnancy, particularly if it is recurring. This entails determining the likelihood of subsequent pregnancies and offering guidance and assistance for responsible family planning.

Management after Molar Pregnancy Treatment

The following tips can help you manage the aftermath of molar pregnancy treatment:

  • Managing the psychological side of things is just as crucial as the medical intervention:
  • Emotional help: In the difficult emotional aftermath, ask friends and family for help.
  • Getting Involved in Support Groups: Making connections with people who have gone through molar pregnancies can foster a feeling of community.
  • Seeking Professional Counselling: Getting help from a counsellor can help you deal with anxiety and loss.

Prevention Tips to Avoid Molar Pregnancy

These are a few tips or proactive actions that result in lowering the risk of molar pregnancy:

  • Early Prenatal Care: Having frequent examinations helps identify any anomalies early on.
  • Genetic counselling: Particularly helpful for partners who have a family history of genetic disorders.
  • Sustaining a Healthy Lifestyle: Good lifestyle decisions and a balanced diet support reproductive health in general.

Conclusion

A molar pregnancy can turn into a severe medical condition, but with timely management and the right molar pregnancy treatment, you can try to prepare for a healthy conception the next time. The above-written article gives you a comprehensive idea about what is molar pregnancy, its causes, symptoms and different types of molar pregnancy treatments. Give it a read to understand about this medical condition. If you are diagnosed with molar pregnancy or your previous pregnancy was molar, and you trying for a healthy pregnancy, consult our fertility expert today. You can either call us directly by dialling the above-given number, or you can book an appointment by filling in the details in the appointment form, our coordinator will call you back shortly to understand your query and will connect you with the best fertility expert at Birla Fertility & IVF.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • What are the possible consequences of molar pregnancy?

In a molar pregnancy, the tissue that normally grows into the placenta instead creates a mass of cysts. This is a rare condition. Complications including preeclampsia, persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), and possible mental discomfort are among the risks.

  • Who is more likely to become pregnant with molar pregnancies?

Although any woman can become pregnant with a molar, women over 35 are more likely to experience one. Furthermore, some dietary habits or people with a history of molar pregnancies may make them more susceptible.

  • Does the chance of a molar pregnancy rise due to any particular risk factors?

Yes, there are a few risk factors: dietary issues, a history of molar pregnancies, mother age over 35, and genetic abnormalities. Early prenatal care and genetic counselling can help reduce these risks.

  • Is molar pregnancy treatment painful?

The main course of therapy for molar pregnancy is dilatation and curettage (D&C) or, in more extreme situations, a hysterectomy. Even though pain is usually controlled with anaesthesia, the goal is to ensure that the aberrant tissue is removed as effectively as possible. A vital component of the total care is emotional support.

Written by:
Dr. Shilpi Srivastva

Dr. Shilpi Srivastva

Consultant
With over 15 years of experience, Dr. Shilpi Srivastva is an expert in the field of IVF and reproductive medicine. She has been at the forefront of innovative developments in reproductive medicine and IVF technology and has won various awards in her field.
Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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